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Generative Artificial Intelligence



Artificial intelligence (AI) is “a technical and scientific field devoted to the engineered system that generates outputs such as content, forecasts, recommendations or decisions for a given set of human-defined objectives” [ISO/IEC 22989:2022].

Traditionally, AI systems are primarily used to analyse data and make predictions. It has since evolved in developing machines capable to analyse large amounts of data, recognise patterns, and make predictions or decisions based on the trained data. 

To better understand how AI works, it is essential to know the following basic concepts:

1. Machine Learning

  • Uses data and algorithms to enable machines to imitate the human brain to learn from data, identify patterns, and make decisions and predictions without explicit programming, gradually improving its accuracy and performance. 

2. Deep Learning

  • A type of AI and machine learning that imitates the human brain by utilising millions of data points to gain knowledge. 

3. Reasoning

  • Mimics the human brain to make inferences based on commands to form hypotheses or develop strategies to make predictions or decisions. 

4. Problem-solving

  • Uses trial-and-error techniques to train the machine to learn and improve its performance, aiming to discover the most desirable and optimal solution to complex problems.

5. Processing Language

  • Uses Natural Language Processing (NLP) to analyse human language data for computers to understand, interpret and generate human language, using text analysis, sentiment analysis and machine translation. 

6. Large Language Model (LLM)

  • Uses deep learning techniques to recognise, understand, summarise, translate, predict, and generate new content using massive datasets. Chatgpt is one example of such a model. 

7. Perception/ Computer Vision 

  • Enables devices to acquire, process, interpret, understand, and analyse data in digital images and videos for facial recognition and object detection etc.


Generative Artificial Intelligence, evolving from advancements in AI technology and machine learning, has enabled the creation of new data and content across images, videos, music, articles, and software code. The application of Generative AI significantly impacts work efficiency, yet at the same time raises ethical considerations. 

This guide provides an overview of generative AI such as the potential usage of generative AI tools, responsible use of these tools, how to design a prompt, how to evaluate the generated content, and how to cite content created from generative AI. 

What is Generative Artificial Intelligence (Gen AI)?

What is Generative Artificial Intelligence?

(Source: Canvas AI Image Generator (ai neural network), 20 May 2024)

Generative Artificial Intelligence (Gen AI) tools are AI chatbots that use humanlike conversational dialogue (natural language) to obtain responses and results through descriptive questions (known as "prompts")  in a fluid manner. They generate content in the form of text, data, and multimedia such as images, music, videos, and voices by harnessing AI technology and a vast dataset as its foundation.

Although Generative AI tools can provide answers to queries in texts or create new multimedia content that seems real, they can also produce inaccurate, non-existent, or misleading results, which is known as "hallucinating" when the datasets or the prompts are of poor quality. 

It is essential to learn how to craft effective prompts to guide the Generative AI tools to create quality content. It is equally important to learn how to use Generative AI tools and the generated content appropriately, thoughtfully, and responsibly.  

Generative AI literacy plays an important role in evaluating and using Generative AI tools. 

Generative AI Tools

Generative AI Tools

Generative AI tools have many potential uses in learning, teaching, and research as well as risks.

It is necessary to acquire and evaluate knowledge of AI and its uses, understand its limitations, and the ethical considerations to safeguard the educational experience, intellectual development, respect for intellectual property, and data privacy of the SUSS community and beyond.  

Please always check with your instructor, who may have specific requirements for your course in using any generative AI tools, and provide guidance on the appropriate use and citation requirements.

Potential Usage

  • Analysing data, text, and arguments 
  • Answering questions
  • Brainstorming ideas
  • Checking for grammar, spelling and facts
  • Coaching and explaining
  • Designing and verifying codes 
  • Conducting a literature review
  • Creating images and video, music, and voices
  • Creating lesson plans, lecture notes, and guides
  • Creating prompt templates
  • Designing a research project 
  • Detecting AI-generated content
  • Evaluating writings and providing feedback
  • Generating hypotheses, questions, and prompts
  • Presenting slides
  • Sourcing and compiling information 
  • Writing, summarizing, paraphrasing, and translating, etc.


Responsible Use of AI Tools

Responsible Use of AI Tools

  • SUSS is committed to upholding academic integrity, and any work submitted must be representative of the individual’s own effort, knowledge, and understanding of the subject matter. 
  • Ideas and information taken from other sources, including those derived from the use of Generative AI tools such as ChatGPT, must be appropriately attributed
  • Inappropriate use of Generative AI tools would violate SUSS's principles of Academic integrity. 
  • When in doubt, please always check with your instructor, who may have specific requirements for your course in using any generative AI tools, and provide guidance on the appropriate use and citation requirements
  • You can refer to the "Guidance on Responsible Use of Generative AI Tools in Assignments" prepared by the Teaching and Learning Centre and Student Handbook (available in the Student Portal) for details.


(Source: Teaching & Learning Centre, Singapore University of Social Sciences. (2023). Academic Integrity [online]. Available from: [accessed 7 May 2024].)

Data Privacy and Security

Data Privacy and Security

  • Many generative AI tools do not come free, and most of them require registration. The providers of these tools may collect personal information such as IP address and email address and share them with their partners to analyse the user behaviour.

  • All users of Generative AI within SUSS (including the Institute of Adult Learning) must adhere to data privacy and security protocols, especially when dealing with sensitive or personal data. This includes understanding the data handling practices of the AI tools used. Confidential or sensitive information should be left out of prompts when using Generative AI. 

  • Intellectual property belonging to SUSS shall not be input/uploaded onto the Generative AI tools. 



1. Singapore University of Social Sciences ("SUSS") Privacy Statement 

2. Student Handbook (accessible by SUSS enrolled students through the Student Portal) 

3. Generative AI Policy for Teaching and Learning (accessible only by faculty, teaching associates and staff through MySUSS intranet)

[Last accessed 7 May 2024]

Professional Sharing (Teaching & Learning Centre)

Professional Sharing (Teaching & Learning Centre)

You can refer to the professional sharing sessions on generative AI organized by the Teaching & Learning Centre, SUSS. 

  1. Harnessing Generative AI for Performance and Productivity in Content Development, Learning and Research (19 Feb 2024)
  2. Adaptive Learning: AI in Education (7 Nov 2023)
  3. Innovation and Risks: Integrating AI in Higher Education (30 Oct 2023)

Do join the "SIG on Generative AI & Learning, Teaching and Assessment" which is a SUSS community of practice to advance pedagogical and assessment practices of generative AI.

Prompts and AI Literacy

Prompts and AI Literacy

The way how we design, plan, and write prompts will affect the accuracy, creativity, depth, effectiveness, and quality of responses and results we might get from the generative AI tools. 

Write prompts like how you make a meaningful conversation or request for a product/service by providing clear and specific instructions

Basic Guidelines

  1. Who your respondent is ("Act as a/an" [role]. Eg. Act as an expert editor, counselor specialising in couple therapy in Singapore...)
  2. What are the tasks you want the respondent to carry out (Provide a summary of the tasks)
  3. What are the specific requirements that need to be included in the task
  4. What the generative AI needs to do (Provide the instructions)

AI Literacy

Always review and verify the generated content to ensure it does not provide misinformation or disinformation. You can make use of the CRAAP (Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose) principles for evaluation.

  • Please refer to our library guide "Using CRAAP to evaluate information" for details.
  • You can also refer to the useful AI literacy framework entitled "A Framework for AI Literacy" developed by Barnard College which provides a conceptual foundation for AI education and programming efforts in higher education institutional contexts. 

- Understand AI

- Use and Apply AI

- Analyse and Evaluate AI

- Create AI


Example of a Prompt: 

You are an expert librarian specializing in Singapore history.

List 3 relevant and useful sources that contain credible and authoritative publications on Singapore history.  Search and retrieve books and peer-reviewed journal articles based on the 3 topics: 

  • Johor Sultanate
  • Malacca Sultanate 
  • Maritime trading port 

Provide the citation count, source of the citation, and summary for these books and journal articles. Organize the information into a list by topic and compile them into a table. Compile the information into a bibliography. Include the title, author, publisher, and year of publication.  Use APA style, 7th edition. Provide the date of compilation at the end of the table

Referencing / Citing AI

Referencing / Citing AI

All ideas that are not original must be acknowledged, including ideas from generative AI tools. 

As with acceptable academic practice, attribution is expected if students use AI to generate responses as part of assessment submissions. Attribution includes the following:

  1. Appropriate and discipline-specific citation, and
  2. A table detailing the name of the AI tool used, the approach to using the tool (e.g., what prompts were used), the full output provided by the tool, and which part of the output was adapted for the assignment.


How to cite Generative AI tools (e.g., ChatGPT) as a source

Presently, there are no specific, formal guidelines from the major citation styles about how to cite ChatGPT or other Generative AI tools as a source.

The general recommendation is to use the format for personal communications to cite any response generated by AI tools.

For more information, you may refer to the following Citation Guides:


(Extracted from Teaching & Learning Centre, Singapore University of Social Sciences. (2023). Academic Integrity [online]. Available from: [accessed 7 May 2024].)


Further Reading:

  1. How to Cite Chatgpt by APA
  2. How do I Cite Generative AI in MLA style? by MLA



You can make use of our subscribed library resources and complement these sources with other online resources to access information on generative AI. 

Please refer to our library guide to learn how to search for resources or book a consultation session with our librarians to get personalized guidance on searching and using information effectively. 



eJournal Articles and Reports

eJournal Articles and Reports

eJournal Articles

Please access the peer-reviewed eJournal articles on generative artificial intelligence subscribed by the library. 

Do refer to the FAQ on "How to log in to SUSS Libary" for details.

Search strategy

          Title contains "generative artificial intelligence"


           Any fields contain "generative AI"

You can filter the results for precision by a date range, peer-reviewed and online availability, etc. according to your research needs. 

You can also expand the results or refine the results by adding new keywords or searching by creator etc. 


You can access the latest reports, trends, and developments on generative AI from EDUCAUSE and Gartner. 

1. Reports and latest trends and developments on Generative AI from Gartner's Generative AI Resource Center

2. Resources on AI in Higher Education from EDUCAUSE

Online Courses / Videos


LinkedIn Learning is an online learning platform that provides online courses on business, technology, and personal development.

Please access the learning courses and videos on generative AI through the LinkedIn Learning courses that we curated for you. 



Links Beyond SUSS